An Analysis of Metaphoric Expression Found in Rihanna’s Song Lyrics


  • Ameitha Pratiwi University of Bengkulu
  • Safnil University of Bengkulu
  • Arasuli University of Bengkulu


Lyric, metaphor, metaphoric Expression, song


The research aimed to find out the types of metaphoric expressions in Rihanna's song lyrics. Language is fundamentally metaphorical. The reason for metaphoric in language because the way we think is metaphorical. Metaphors are used to help us to express our perspective. There were six selected songs chosen randomly by the researcher. This research was designed as a descriptive quantitative and qualitative research. In writing this paper, the researcher was used the documentation method to collect the data. The steps were reading and learning the lyrics of the song, selecting the types of metaphors expression in the song lyrics, classifying the data, making the description, and drawing the conclusion. The technique of data analysis was using David Crystal’s theory as the main theory to classify the types of metaphor, namely; conceptual metaphor, poetic metaphor, mixed metaphor, and conventional metaphor. The result of this study showed the type of metaphor that mostly used in the selected song lyrics is a poetic metaphor. The second most typically used is a conventional metaphor. Besides those two metaphors, two metaphors slightly appear in the songs. They are; conceptual metaphor and mixed metaphor. The results show that two metaphors found in all songs and three songs used all types of metaphors.


Arikunto, S. (2009). Dasar-dasar evaluasi pendidikan: Edisi Revisi. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara

Ary, D. (1985). Introduction to research in education. New York

Crystal, D. (1999). The Penguin Dictionary of Language (Second Edition). London: Penguin.

Goatly, A. (1997). The language of metaphor. New York: Routledge.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1994). An introduction to functional grammar (2nd edn). London: Edward Arnold.

Lakoff, G & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mahmudah, F. (2015). An analysis of metaphor in the Jakarta Post Business Articles on May 5, 2014 Edition. State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah: Jakarta.

Moleong, Lexy J. (2001). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.

Noermanzah, N., Syafryadin, S., Castrena, O. W., & Abid, S. (2020). Rhetoric Structure of the Master of Ceremony and the Function of the Akikah Event in Lubuklinggau City. Journal of English Education and Teaching, 4(2), 232-247.

Rettob, M.G. (2015). The Metaphor analysis of selected Eminem’s Rap song lyrics. Sanata

Dharma University: Yogyakarta.

Sholichati, N. (2013). Analysis of metaphorical expressions on Everlasting Love Songs. Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.

Syafryadin, S. (2020). Students’ Strategies in Learning Speaking: Experience of Two Indonesian Schools. Vision: Journal for Language and Foreign Language Learning, 9(1), 33-46.

Syafryadin, S., Martina, F., & Salniwati, S. (2020). Compensation strategies in speaking activities for non-English department students: poor and competent speakers. JEES (Journal of English Educators Society), 5(2), 109-116.